What would an autumn cycling trip in New England be without colorful maples? What’s a ski vacation without fresh snow? Or an outing to the shore where the beach has eroded? These scenarios are unimaginable for many, yet global warming threatens to make them a reality as species extinctions, severe storms, flooding, drought, melting icecaps, and warmer, more acidic ocean water transform the outdoor environments we love.
People are responding to the threat by rushing to destinations hard-hit by climate change before they disappear. They want to climb Tanzania’s Mt. Kilimanjaro before its fabled snows melt forever, or paddle Florida’s Everglades before its grassy swamps dry up. The see-it-before-it’s-gone philosophy has launched an entirely new form of tourism: climate-change sightseeing.
While the trend has spurred a rise in expensive once-in-a-lifetime trips, you don’t have to visit far-flung continents or invest your life savings to witness global warming’s destruction — and get inspired to do your part to help ward it off.
“People think of climate change as happening somewhere else in the world, but the issue is right in our backyard,” says Alexandra Cousteau, granddaughter of legendary oceanic explorer Jacques Cousteau and the founder of Blue Legacy International, which works to tell the story of our water-based planet and to inspire people to take action on critical water issues.
Indeed, in the United States, global warming threatens everything from the redwood forests (succumbing to fires) to the Gulf Stream waters (ravaged by hurricanes). In Montana’s Glacier National Park, record high temperatures have caused the namesake glaciers to recede. In the western United States, the death rates of trees in old-growth forests have doubled in the last two to three decades due to droughts caused by longer, hotter summers, according to a recent study published in Science.
From Tourist to Advocate
Awareness about the causes and consequences of climate change inspires our commitment to preserve wild areas — rivers, oceans, mountains, forests — which also happen to be great places for rafting, snorkeling and backpacking. By visiting a threatened destination, you may become one of its champions. (For more on athletes and outdoor enthusiasts preserving their outdoor playgrounds, read “Back to the Land” in the April 2005 archives.)
For example, melting polar ice receives much media attention, but few people brave the frozen regions, so eyewitness accounts are critical. “The Arctic is white, desolate, remote and dynamically beautiful like nowhere else on the planet,” says Keith Heger, a guide for PolarExplorers (www.polarexplorers.com), which leads ski and dogsled expeditions to the North Pole, Antarctica and Greenland. “Those who go to the effort to spend 24 hours a day in minus-30-degree weather are forever connected to the North Pole. They become its ambassadors.”
That’s exactly how Brian S. Jones, a Fredericton, New Brunswick, investment adviser felt after joining PolarExplorers’ 12-day North Pole Last Degree Expedition. Jones, 37, trained six months to be fit enough to ski and pull a sled 10 hours a day. Despite the constant challenges and risks of spending time in the frigid Arctic environment — the threat of frost injuries, lack of nearby emergency facilities, and cooking and sleeping in tents — he and the seven other skiers in his group gained a deep appreciation for the fragile terrain.
In fact, traveling over the huge ice floes inspired Jones to start Ski for Green, which promotes climate-change education. “I’m one of very few people who’s skied to the North Pole,” Jones says. “Based on the melting ice, I doubt there will be many more.”
Like many outfitters, PolarExplorers offsets all the carbon emissions created by its operations and flights. The company also
follows Leave No Trace principles by packing out all supplies and waste (for tips, see “Earth-Friendly Forays” in the April 2007 archives).
Rising ocean temperatures and CO2-related acidity are straining coral reefs worldwide, but don’t hang up your fins just yet: Breathtaking undersea life still remains. Bonaire, a Caribbean island just 50 miles north of the Venezuelan coast, boasts a well-managed marine park that protects coral from careless divers and boat anchorage.
Unfortunately, the park can’t shield its reef from global warming. “There’s been a huge change in the underwater world I love,” laments Francine Hammer, 57, of Naperville, Ill., who has visited Bonaire regularly since 1979. “I was shocked to find bleached and algae-covered reefs. That distracted me from seeing all the beauty that’s still there.”
Over the years, Hammer has done her part to keep Bonaire’s magic alive by participating in garbage-pickup dives and helping to create moorings to keep boats from anchoring on fragile coral. The prospect of losing her undersea view of parrotfish, seahorses and octopus has Hammer “thinking about global warming and going green.”
Conscientious tourism is critical, says Cousteau. “There’s a surge in people who want to see endangered environments, but they need to be cautious they’re not making the problem worse,” she says.
If you plan to explore any region at risk from climate change, stay at an eco-lodge or environmentally conscious hotel, Cousteau advises (many mega-hotels are notorious for practices that cause pollution and excess waste), and be sure to minimize your impact while you’re there. For snorkelers or divers, that means never touching coral (it harms the organisms). Likewise, wilderness campers shouldn’t bring their own firewood. Just one log infested by elm bark beetle, ash borer or mountain pine beetle could kill an entire forest.
Indeed, air travel itself can contribute to the problem. Diving Australia’s endangered Great Barrier Reef might awaken your dormant environmentalist, but flying there from New York City spews out 2.2 tons of CO2 per person. Is the trip worth emitting this much greenhouse gas?
“If everyone flew as avidly as Americans, we’d have a much bigger greenhouse problem,” admits Robert Henson, meteorologist and author of The Rough Guide to Climate Change (Rough Guides, 2008). “Yet if everyone stayed home, it would be a bleaker world. What matters is how smart you travel and that you conserve energy in everyday life.”
If you’re more interested in fighting global warming than witnessing it, a volunteer vacation may be the climate-change trip for you. On these getaways, participants lend a hand with conservation projects led by environmental organizations.
Warren Stortroen, 76, of St. Paul, Minn., frequently volunteers for research projects with the Earthwatch Institute, a nonprofit that lets you join scientists doing field research. He chose a 14-day Mammals of Nova Scotia trip where principal investigator, Christina Buesching, PhD, was studying how climate change affects woodland animals, from moose to mice. On the trip, the volunteers — who were provided with accommodations and meals as part of the volunteer package — gathered population data on small rodents, deer, fox and snowshoe hare.
“It’s a rewarding vacation that matters,” says Stortroen. “It sounds insignificant, but catching and studying white-footed deer mice is as exciting as working with a large moose — which we never found.”
Buesching appreciates the dedication of volunteers who help her piece together these clues. For instance, missing moose are linked to shorter, milder winters. “Moose are equipped to bulldoze through deep snow, but the daintier deer (who aren’t native to Nova Scotia) can’t,” she says. Harsh winters normally control the deer, but without heavy snow, they overpopulate and spread disease to the moose. “The white-tailed deer carry a parasitic nematode, the brain worm, that when spread to the moose, kills them by destroying their brains,” Buesching says.
Stortroen worries that some animals won’t survive human-made shifts in the climate. “That’s why I’m so eager to see the world and help out more,” he says.
His vacation has broader ramifications, too. Stortroen’s slice of climate-change research creates a ripple effect: Buesching shares her findings with other scientists, who may themselves go on to help reverse climate change.
What will an expedition to a calving glacier or a sailing vacation among the whales in Baja inspire in you? You’ll never know if you don’t head out and see.
Hard Facts on Climate Change
- Every five minutes, the Arctic loses up to 3 square miles of its multiyear ice. — The Rough Guide to Climate Change by Robert Henson (Rough Guides, 2008)
- 40 percent of the Arctic icecap will be lost by 2050. — National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, www.noaa.gov
- Every five minutes, the Amazon loses 600,000 square feet of climate-preserving rainforest. — The Rough Guide to Climate Change
- Australia’s Great Barrier Reef could be functionally dead before 2050. — Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, www.ipcc.ch
Endangered Places to See Now
Thinking about visiting an area hard-hit by global warming? Far-flung or nearby, many landscapes are in flux. Here are some important U.S. locations. For more ideas, read Frommer’s 500 Places to See Before They Disappear by Holly Hughes (Wiley, 2009).
Death Valley, Calif.: The vegetation that holds the desert soil and dunes in place is being threatened by heat and drought.
The Redwoods, Calif.: The giant, 2,000-year-old trees are at risk from forest fires.
Cape Hatteras National Seashore, N.C.: Severe storms and rising sea levels have caused beach erosion and loss of flora and fauna.
Nachusa Grasslands, Ill.: One of the last surviving prairies, this area is being protected from encroaching development.
Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida Keys: This low-lying island is threatened by rising seas, reef bleaching and hurricanes.
The Everglades, Fla.: The marshy landscape and bird species are threatened by dwindling water, pollution and urban development.
Glacier National Park, Mont.: The namesake glaciers are melting and could be gone by 2030.
Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska: Rising sea tides and glacial melting are changing the face of these mountains.
A few resources to help you plan your own awareness trip.
PolarExplorers: Offers expeditions to the North and South Poles, plus the high Arctic and Antarctic. www.polarexplorers.com
National Geographic Expeditions: Leads adventures around the world, including up Mt. Kilimanjaro climbs and snorkeling in the Galapagos Islands. www.nationalgeographicexpeditions.com
EarthWatch Institute: Find climate-change volunteer opportunities around the globe, from Costa Rica to Nova Scotia. www.earthwatch.org/expedition
Ecoventura: A carbon-neutral adventure-tourism company in the Galapagos Islands. www.ecoventura.com
International Ecotourism Society: Search for an eco-outfitter or eco-trip in this nonprofit organization’s eco-destination database. www.ecotourism.org
REI Adventures: Find carbon-neutral outdoor adventures around the world. www.rei.com/adventures
Sustainable Travel International: Search the eco-directory for sustainable destinations and companies. www.sustainabletravel.com|
Endangered Places to See Now: International
- Amazon River, Brazil: The rainforest is being logged and burned for ranching, while the river is drying from droughts and sedimentation.
- Antarctica: Rising ocean temperatures and melting ice threatens the penguins.
- Dead Sea, Israel: This salty lake is drying up due to because of rapid evaporation and reduced flow from the Jordan River, diverted for agriculture.
- The Eiger, Swiss Alps: Chunks of this famous peak are crumbling into the valley as the glaciers that hold the mountain together melt.
- Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Overzealous tourism, invasive species and warmer seawater could ruin the world’s most unique ecosystem.
- Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Rising water temperatures and acidity from atmospheric CO2 endanger the planet’s longest reef.
- Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Snow atop this volcanic mountain is retreating 3.5 feet per year.
- New Zealand Fiordlands National Park: The ozone hole has damaged plant and animal life.
Eco-Friendly Travel Tips
Simple suggestions for leaving less impact when you travel.
Travel closer to home (when you can).
Choose less-polluting transportation (train, bus, boat, bicycle).
Avoid flying by night. Airplane contrails (thin clouds) exacerbate the greenhouse effect more at night. Midday flights have up to 50 percent less impact than night flights.
Offset the carbon created by car or airplane travel by purchasing carbon credits that fund renewable energy. Calculate your carbon emissions at www.sustainabletravelinternational.org, www.terrapass.com or www.nativeenergy.com.
Choose eco-lodges or green hotels with a track record of energy efficiency and environmental stewardship.
Dine at restaurants that serve local food.