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adults playing basketball

Wanted: Dependable adult for planning, strategizing and analyzing. Must be willing to sweat buckets and pulverize the competition. Aerobically fit applicants with courage and willingness to collide with others and be hit by flying objects preferred. Salary: $0. Benefits: Massive improvements in physical fitness; truckloads of motivation; a full portfolio of fun; no retirement age in sight.

This is the job description for a member of an adult sports team — a job description more and more adults are signing up for. And wisely so. After all, why leave all those exhilarating highs and gut-wrenching lows to kids’ teams? A lot of adults, both those who’ve built peak fitness in the gym and those looking to recover the sinew of their youth, are finding a wellspring of rewards on the playing field.

They’re also finding some very welcome challenges. Team sports demand strategy, spontaneity, creativity and other mental talents that aren’t usually required when you step on the treadmill or elliptical machine. The best payoff: a huge injection of pure fun and camaraderie into your exercise life. “Team sports take us back to childhood so we start to play again,” notes Cedric X. Bryant, PhD, chief exercise physiologist for the American Council on Exercise.

Between 1998 and 2002 alone, participation in team sports in the United States increased more than 7 percent overall, according to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, and the growth in certain sports rose even more. The number of people who play soccer frequently, for example, jumped 17 percent in the past three years. And more of those players are adults: In 1999, 26 percent of soccer players were over age 18. By 2001, that number had exceeded 30 percent.

One reason team sports are popular with adults is that they raise the fitness bar: Participants find they have to train harder to play harder, and they want to play harder because their teammates are depending on them. Suddenly, working out serves a purpose and delivers a rush of satisfaction and exhilaration that just isn’t available in your average cardio class.

“Team play encourages you to let go of the idea of an exercise ‘dose,’” says Jeff Simons, PhD, a professor of kinesiology and physical education at Cal State University-Hayward. “When you’re engaging with other people while exercising, you tend to stop worrying about whether you’re doing ‘enough’ and instead just get involved in the activity because it’s fun.”

Team sports challenge and build every dimension of a person: your muscles; your joints and ligaments; your mental process; even your spirit. How? Here’s the rundown …

The Cognitive Benefit of Team Sports

During a typical fitness-building workout on the treadmill or in a class, your focus is on you. When you’re part of a team, that all changes. Your field of vision and thinking both widen dramatically. “There’s a huge mental shift that occurs when you go from focusing on you, the individual, to you as a member of a team,” says Karen D. Cogan, PhD, a sports psychologist at the University of North Texas in Denton. “It’s a different philosophy — you’re thinking more in terms of the whole being greater than the sum of the parts.”

In team sports, every team member is expected to give his or her personal best, but the goal is a shared one, whether it’s to move the runner to second base or win the city championship. That shift in thinking, from Lone Ranger to team member, can be tough for some people to make. But your mental vigor will be tested in other ways as well.

Because team games are often head games, you’ll be forced to use your brain, often millisecond by millisecond. In fast-moving sports like team Frisbee, rugby and soccer, you’ll have to continually create, implement and revise strategies as the ball moves on the field. Plus, quick thinking and focus are called for when you have to communicate with your teammates in the midst of a key play. You may be required to play a confidence game as you face the opposing team, not letting them guess your next play or not allowing them to sense frustration.

Once you’ve given yourself up to the group and are focused on the constantly changing game, you may find yourself shifting back to a time when clocks, mortgage payments and deadlines didn’t exist.

“When you play team sports, as long as you don’t become too competitive, it relieves stress and puts you back in a childlike mode,” says Simons. “It puts you in the mindset where you do the activity for the sheer enjoyment of it.”

Motivational Push

Knowing that your efforts can affect the outcome of the game and that you’ll share the thrill of victory or the agony of defeat as a group, you may find yourself motivated to play harder to put your team in the winning category. “If it’s just you, you can decide to take it easy if you don’t feel like working out or you’re tired,” Cogan says. “But if you have other people depending on you, you don’t want to let down the team. Plus, you’ve got people saying, ‘C’mon, c’mon!’ so there’s a motivational factor, too.”

That motivation can take you beyond the level of familiarity and comfort — and into a zone where you push yourself to new limits. As a result, you might run faster than usual on the soccer field, dive for spectacular catches in softball or jump for a winning spike in volleyball. It’s not even a conscious decision, in many cases; it’s an automatic reaction to wanting to keep up with others. You just plain care more, and that can bring out the very best in you.

“It really has to do with a phenomenon in psychology called ‘the social facilitation effect,’” Simons explains. “When people do something with other people and they’re watching what other people do, they tend to put out more effort on the field or court — and it’s not necessarily because they’re competitive. We’re social animals and we like to keep up with others. So we stop thinking so much about ourselves and think more in terms of the group, which can raise the level of play.”

If anyone can attest to this, it’s Brian Wood, who works at an insurance brokerage firm in Austin, Texas. Four years ago, he realized he missed his competitive collegiate soccer days, so he joined an indoor soccer league for adults. “When I got back into it, I remembered what drove me for so many years to train as hard as I did: The game is a real motivation to keep in shape,” he says. “I find that the older I get, the smarter and hungrier I have to be to keep up with younger guys. It’s a different kind of discipline than just working out in a gym.”

Body Benefits

Just look at the hard bodies on a soccer field or basketball court and you know that team sports are physically demanding. Probably the biggest difference between activities such as running, cycling, basketball and soccer is where you put your body: On the field of play, you’ll be moving not just forward and back or up and down, but side to side, on the diagonal and twisting in two directions. This results in a deeper, more varied functional fitness.

The combination of running, jumping, diving, throwing and catching that many team sports require naturally helps you improve balance and become aware of your body’s position in space. In this way, explains Eric Sternlicht, PhD, president of Simply Fit, a nutrition and exercise consulting firm in Los Angeles and an assistant professor of kinesiology at Occidental College, it’s a form of functional fitness — training that gets your body in shape for the activities of real life. Knowing how to safely slide into a base during a softball game, for example, might help you avoid injury if you slipped and fell on a wet floor.

You’ll also train at different intensities and speeds and broaden your fitness base. “When you’re working at a fixed intensity, you tend to develop and strengthen only one system — like the heart’s ability to deliver oxygen but not the muscles’ ability to utilize it,” Sternlicht says. “During a game, you get spikes of activity, and you end up recruiting and training different muscle fibers at varying intensities, which can help with endurance, stamina, power and strength.” As an added bonus, you’ll be expending more calories (so long as you keep moving) because you’re playing at a more competitive intensity overall.

To find out how specific team sports can challenge your body, mind and spirit, read “The Scorecard” below. Armed with these details, you’ll be in a better position to decide which ones are likely to suit your skills. Then take the plunge: Try one or two and see how you do, and what you like. Pretty soon you’ll be asking if your friends can come out and play.

A League of Your Own

Ready to join a team? Use the resources below to find a team you can join. If an established league doesn’t exist, contact the sport’s main organization or association about starting a league in your area, then use these resources to search for more players.

  • PARKS AND RECREATION department. Your city or county parks and rec department will know where playing facilities are located and what teams or leagues are playing and when. Also ask when team and league sign-ups are held.
  • GYMS AND HEALTH CLUBS. Your local club or YMCA/YWCA may have facilities for team sports or sponsor league play.
  • SPORTING GOODS STORES. Ask about league play, especially at stores that offer to customize jerseys and uniforms. Check bulletin boards.
  • WEB SITES. Do a search on your sport and your town name along with the term “league” and you may find a listing. Or go to the Web site, which gives you access to a list of sports teams that you can sort alphabetically by state.
  • ASK AT WORK. Check with your employer’s human resources department. Many community leagues pit local companies against one another in league play. In large metropolitan regions, there may even be leagues organized by profession; in New York City, for example, there are lawyers’ leagues and actors’ leagues. If there isn’t a team in your favorite sport, consider starting one. You’ll build morale at work and make new friends.

Injury Prevention

There is more risk of injury when you’re playing team sports. The quick side-to-side movements, unanticipated moves and collisions can quickly put a player on the sidelines. One good injury prevention plan: Spend time in the gym. “The gym workout can serve as the basis for being able to participate more safely in a team sport,” says Cedric X. Bryant, PhD, chief exercise physiologist for the American Council on Exercise. Bryant’s advice: Spend three to six weeks in preseason training, with these basic exercises — leg extensions, calf raises, wrist curls and wrist extensions, lateral shoulder raises and ankle-strengthening exercises. Also examine your field of play. Check for ankle-twisting divots on the field; be sure that softball diamonds have breakaway bases; look for padding on soccer and rugby goalposts; and in any sport, an experienced referee can help keep play fair and safe.

The Scorecard


How it improves fitness: Cardiovascular conditioning with intense speed and power for vertical jumps and running.

The physical challenge: Agility to move in many directions and planes of motion quickly; stress on joints from side-to-side movements, pivoting, jumping and impact when you land.

The mental challenge: Dealing with the unexpected; anticipating what other players will do; focusing on your shot when someone’s hand is in your face; being able to block out distractions during free throws.

The Gear You need: High-top shoes for ankle support; sports tape, if you’re prone to ankle injuries; a mouth guard.

Must-do pre-play move: Learn to land with a bent knee to prevent injury to your anterior cruciate ligament (the main source of stability for the knee). Practice with plyometric exercises.

The fun factor: “On the court, your personal effort is rewarded instantly,” says player Dan Dupont, of Arlington, Va. “If my shots aren’t falling, I can always play harder on defense or work more underneath for rebounds, and I’m happy to be helping the team. It’s rare that you get such instant satisfaction or results doing other daily things.”


How it improves fitness: Lower-body conditioning from kicking and running; some cardiovascular as well.

The physical challenge: A stable core to generate power and strength for your kicking leg.

The mental challenge: Strategizing about where to kick the ball and then executing that move.

The Gear You need: Cross-training shoes with good lateral support to provide side-to-side stability.

Must-do pre-play move: Common injuries are sprains and partial muscle tears; avoid these with a warm-up jog of at least five minutes, then thoroughly stretch ankles, calves, quads and hamstrings.

The fun factor: “It’s just as much fun as you remembered,” says Johnny LeHane, of Ashburn, Va., cofounder of the World Adult Kickball Association. “You just can’t help but have a great time, laugh and smile every time you pick up that big, red ball.”


How it improves fitness: Nonstop play builds cardiovascular conditioning, stamina, strength and power.

The physical challenge: Balance to keep your feet amid bodies crashing against you; strength to fend off players trying to tackle you; speed to accelerate away from the defense.

The mental challenge: The courage to be physical and to tolerate tackling and being tackled; mental focus.

The Gear You need: Good shoes with lateral support, a mouth guard; a scrumcap (soft, padded helmet) to reduce the risk of head injury.

Must-do pre-play move: To perform at maximum speed as soon as the whistle blows, do a dynamic warm-up routine, alternating between running forward, backward and sideways, along with high-knee drills, butt kicks, bounding and progressive sprints.

The fun factor: “I’m a very competitive person, and rugby gives you a great outlet to run around and play your heart out,” says Matt Becker, a real estate agent/broker in Boulder, Colo., who has played rugby on and off for 12 years. “In a lot of sports, one person can win a game. That’s not the case in rugby. Everybody gets to touch the ball and run with the ball, and you and your teammates really need each other on the field.”


How it improves fitness: Aerobic and anaerobic conditioning; lower-body strength and power.

The physical challenge: Agility for sideways and diagonal moves to avoid your opponent; foot-eye coordination for dribbling, passing and kicking; quick reflexes; leg strength.

The mental challenge: Mental focus to analyze what other players are doing and ability to respond accordingly; teamwork; ability to play a position.

The Gear You need: Cleats, shin guards (preferably those with air padding systems) and a mouth guard.

Must-do pre-play move: Since quadricep and hamstring pulls are common soccer injuries, do forward, lateral and backward running drills to warm up, with stretching in between.

The fun factor: “Soccer involves different areas of your brain in terms of strategizing and team playing, and it’s a real physical challenge because it requires endurance,” says Matt Bernier, who plays on a soccer team in San Francisco. “It’s also a great way to meet people. Soccer, in particular, is a real European sport, so I’ve met a lot of people from other countries, which has been fun.”


How it improves fitness: Hand-eye coordination, hitting power, running speed.

The physical challenge: Muscle strength (especially core strength) for batting and throwing; flexibility.

The mental challenge: Patience and mental focus during time on the bench; courage to stay with and catch a ball coming at you at 60 or 70 mph.

The Gear You need: Cleats, a glove, support shorts (if you’re prone to hip or hamstring injuries), a baseball cap and sunglasses with UV protection.

Must-do pre-play move: Before you go to bat, simulate your swing, first without a bat, then with a bat — maybe even use a couple of bats for added weight. Start slow and gradually increase the speed of your swing. Also, keep in mind you’ll be standing still periodically throughout the game, so run in place and stretch to stay warm.

The fun factor: “Playing softball is fairly easy on your body — you’re not going to tear your body apart on the field — and it’s a great way to gain some skills, be outdoors and be with people you like,” says Caitlin Kelly, who has played softball for 10 years in Tarrytown, N.Y. “I love the subtleties of the game — learning how to throw properly, bat to different parts of the field and use your hips for power.”

Ultimate Frisbee

How it improves fitness: Aerobic and anaerobic fitness from running and sprinting; endurance.

The physical challenge: Leg power for sprinting; upper-body strength (including rotational power in the shoulders) for throwing the Frisbee; stamina to keep going.

The mental challenge: Mental focus, especially when fatigue sets in; ability to think, strategize and react when the wind affects Frisbee flight.

The Gear You need: Cross-training shoes with lateral stability or cleats; breathable clothes to allow heat to dissipate and sweat to evaporate.

Must-do pre-play move: To prevent muscle strain, warm up by jogging for five minutes, then stretch the major muscle groups in your legs, as well as your shoulder and back muscles.

The fun factor: “It’s a combination of a lot of sports, like passing and running down the field as you would in football but without being rough; and cutting, passing and catching like in basketball,” says Megan Barron, who plays ultimate at least once a week in New York and Los Angeles. “And there’s a great camaraderie — people are really welcoming, open and fair because you’re making your own calls.”


How it improves fitness: Anaerobic conditioning; hand-eye coordination.

The physical challenge: The ability to generate explosive force in your arms, to hit and set up the ball; quick reaction time, especially for defense; agility.

The mental challenge: Focus and courage to deal with high-speed spikes; quick thinking to move the ball and set up shots.

The Gear You need: Knee and elbow pads and shoes with good lateral support and plenty of cushion in the soles.

Must-do pre-play move: Stretching exercises for your upper and lower body to prepare you for all the diving, spiking and pounding. Learn to land with a bent knee to prevent ligament injuries.

The fun factor: “The team dynamic is really great: More than anything, it’s about chemistry, because you need good passing, a good setter and good hitters,” says Gene del Rosario, of Hackensack, N.J., who has played volleyball for 15 years. “And there’s nothing as satisfying as hitting a really great spike or making a great block that wins your team the game.”

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