At Experience Life, our team enjoys its fair share of dark chocolate. It’s not uncommon, for instance, to find us passing a bar around during meetings, each of us nibbling on a couple of squares as we pitch story ideas or review new articles. So, when it came time to report on the latest findings regarding the superfood’s highly touted health perks, we were keen to learn more — about the feel-good hormones the treat triggers, as well as the myriad nutritional, cardiovascular, and neurological benefits dark chocolate brings.
Or does it?
As we dug into the research, we discovered a troubling pattern: The fine print in study after study revealed that they’d been conducted or funded by subsidiaries of the world’s largest candy makers: Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition, Mars Science Advisory Council, Mars Symbioscience, and Nestlé Research Center, for example.
While this doesn’t necessarily rule out their findings as bad science, it does raise questions about bias, if simply in what was studied. And why.
“Candy and chocolate makers consciously invested in scientific research as part of a marketing campaign to instill chocolate as a healthy ‘superfood’ in consumers’ minds,” explains New York University nutrition and public-health professor Marion Nestle, PhD, MPH, author of Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. (Note: Nestle is not affiliated with Nestlé.)
“They want to sell more candy,” she says, “and health claims are a great way to do that.”
With Wonka-like exuberance, Big Candy has elevated dark chocolate to the status of a health elixir in the past 20 years, establishing it atop the superfood pantheon alongside green tea, red wine, and avocados. The halo effect has also enhanced the reputations of dark-chocolate-covered snacks, such as the superfood marriage of dark chocolate and blueberries.
But is dark chocolate truly as healthy as promised? When cacao (the raw, unprocessed seeds from which chocolate is produced) is processed into cocoa and blended with sugar and fats into dark chocolate, do the benefits really outweigh the potential harm to our health?
Chocolate is big business: U.S. retail sales grew 25 percent in the past decade, from $14.2 billion in 2007 to $18.9 billion in 2017. This growth occurred in an era when the broadening epidemics of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have dampened overall U.S. candy sales.
Despite consumers’ health anxiety, Big Candy has been successful in boosting dark-chocolate sales by leveraging research to offset these concerns. It’s the same marketing strategy the tobacco industry, soda makers, fast-food franchises, and other beleaguered economic sectors have employed to rehabilitate unhealthy products, says Nestle.
“Coca-Cola spent a fortune on research aimed at demonstrating that sugars are not harmful and that any evidence to the contrary is junk science,” she explains. And Mars, Inc. — the world’s largest candy maker with its top-selling M&M’s and Snickers — has “invested millions of dollars in promoting cocoa as healthy.”
Big Candy made its intentions clear at the 2006 launch of the Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition, when the firm’s then chief global growth officer, Tom Hernquist, announced: “Our goal is to redefine the future of snacking by offering consumers products that provide proven health benefits and the superior taste they expect from Hershey. Our research is validating the significant health benefits of cocoa.”
The proliferation of studies has eased feelings of guilty pleasure for many dark-chocolate lovers. And the media eats up this research, splashing it across the front page or headlining it on the evening news. Who doesn’t love hearing that dark chocolate — and maybe all chocolate — is healthy?
To further appeal to so-called clean snackers, Hershey, in 2016, created “snackfections,” marketing-speak for hybrids of snack food and candy. These include some of the industry’s most successful product launches in years, including such chocolate-covered delicacies as goji berries, pretzels, snack mixes, nuts, and even potato chips.
The strategy is working. As the International Franchise Association’s 2018 Chocolate Industry Analysis summarized: “Growth of the chocolate industry over the last decade has been driven in large part by an increasing awareness of the health benefits.”
Eat Chocolate, Live Longer?
Big Candy’s research focuses on the benefits of cocoa flavanols, a term that was largely unknown to the average consumer before candy makers began promoting it.
Flavanols are a class of flavonoids — phytonutrients available in many plant-based foods and drinks, including tea and wine; fruits such as berries, cherries, apples, apricots, and grapes; and cocoa. But cocoa is special, Mars’s website states: “No other food on Earth can match cocoa’s unique blend of flavanols. That’s why experts refer to the cocoa bean as nature’s most surprising ‘superfruit.’”
In search of these experts, we sought out additional studies — only to discover that it’s tough to find any research on cocoa’s health benefits not connected to the industry. Of the dozens of studies we reviewed, every one of them was gushing in its findings.
Mars, Hershey, Nestlé, Cadbury, Spanish candy maker Nutrexpa, and Swiss giant Barry Callebaut (the leading producer of industrial chocolate for confectioneries) have sponsored hundreds of studies, as well as conferences, symposiums, YouTube videos, and documentary films — plus a constant social-media blitz. The American Cocoa Research Institute, whose members include the major industry players, often provides study supplies (cocoa).
Among the most prolific cocoa researchers is University of California, Davis, nutritionist Carl Keen, PhD. He’s helmed some 28 studies on the beneficial properties of cocoa flavanols since 2006 — the year he was appointed the first holder of the Mars Family Endowed Chair in Developmental Nutrition, part of a $40 million food-institute grant from Mars and Nestlé.
Keen believes the most impressive findings relate to cocoa flavanols’ potential to enhance vascular function to reduce blood pressure and prevent cardiovascular disease.
“The last thing we want to do is tell people, ‘Oh, just eat chocolate and that’s your solution to good vascular health,’” he says. “But the data are pretty exciting.”
Yet marketing claims venture much further than the data. “Based on a significant body of published research, consumption of cocoa flavanols has been shown to improve blood-vessel function, thereby helping to support the health and function of the cardiovascular system,” promises the Mars Center for Cocoa Health Science website. The site links to more than 140 Mars-funded studies stretching back to 1999.
Among them is a Columbia University Medical Center report (funded by an “unrestricted grant” from Mars) with the headline “Taking Cocoa Flavanols Can Reverse Memory Decline as We Age.” While the randomized controlled trial found some impressive gains in cognitive function, it included only 33 participants.
Then there’s another Mars-funded paper on cocoa — from UC Davis — entitled “Food of the Gods: Cure for Humanity?”
As Keen summarizes a further study: “The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.”
Big Candy’s goal is not simply selling chocolate, however. Candy makers are launching cocoa-based health supplements and more. In 2015 Mars unveiled CocoaVia in capsule, smoothie-powder, and snack-stick forms; numerous candy makers and supplement producers now offer cocoa-flavanol pills and potions. Meanwhile, a new spectrum of beauty products includes cocoa-based skin creams, shampoos, bath oils, and other health-promising ointments.
And that’s only the beginning. Since 1999, Mars has successfully patented dozens of cocoa-flavanol “inventions,” including anti-inflammatory painkillers, cardiovascular medicines, and cancer fighters. The company has even obtained a patent for a cocoa-flavanol toothpaste or other application to combat periodontal disease.
If Mars has its way, someday we could be eating a chocolate bar a day to keep the doctor away.
All of this brings us back to this question: Is dark chocolate truly good for you? Despite the preponderance of glowing industry-funded studies, the answer is yes — and no.
First, it’s important to realize that the industry is spinning the research: Although Big Candy marketers hail the study findings on chocolate, most research is actually done on cacao and cocoa.
Cacao indeed appears to contain a wealth of health-giving properties, including vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, C, D, and E; minerals such as calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; and antioxidants like flavanols and polyphenols. Cacao also boosts feel-good hormones, such as serotonin.
But cacao is heavily processed to make cocoa, often including fermentation (inspiring some scientists to deem chocolate a probiotic), alkalization (a.k.a. Dutching, which extracts bitterness), and high-heat roasting. This processing can destroy flavanols and their healthy properties.
Second, because flavanols inherently have a bitter taste, manufacturers add sugar, cocoa butter (a fat found in cacao), and other fats to transform cocoa into chocolate.
“Pure cocoa offers nutrients and has health benefits, but pure cocoa is not the same as a candy bar, and marketing is clouding facts for the purpose of sales,” explains Andy Bellatti, MS, RD, strategic director of the food-industry watchdog group Dietitians for Professional Integrity.
“It would be like touting the health benefits of apples when you’re selling apple pie. An apple is 100 percent apple, whereas an apple pie also includes flour, sugar, added fats, etc. If a tablespoon of sugar is added to cocoa, then the health benefits of cocoa are mitigated.”
The Search for Healthy Chocolate
One researcher without ties to Big Candy is nutritionist Mary Engler, PhD, who began studying chocolate in 2000 at the University of California, San Francisco.
“Ethical issues are definitely a concern for research funded by companies that have a vested interest in the product, as the validity of the results may be in question,” she warns.
Still, Engler is a strong advocate of dark chocolate — depending on which chocolate you choose.
“It is important that the extra calories and fat be considered with chocolate,” she advises. “By choosing dark chocolate with almost twice or more of the amount of flavonoids in milk chocolate, you are making a healthier choice — with less sugar as well.”
Not all dark chocolate is created equal, however. In fact, “dark chocolate” is itself a marketing term; the U.S. Department of Agriculture does not regulate how much cocoa must be included in a bar to label it “dark,” as it does with milk chocolate.
And currently, there’s no easy way to determine the flavanol level of a bar. “Percent cacao is standardized on a food label, and a higher cacao content should yield a higher level of cocoa flavanols, but unfortunately it’s not a reliable indicator of flavanol content,” says Catherine Kwik-Uribe, PhD, global director of applied scientific research for Mars Symbioscience.
Mars is striving to standardize the complex and expensive tests used to gauge flavanol amounts. For now, though, researchers agree that consumers can only go by the broad maxim that flavanol levels are roughly in proportion to the cocoa percentage.
If a bar has 60 percent cocoa, that means the remaining 40 percent is filler. This is typically sugar, vegetable oil or other fats, vanilla, and milk (dairy can block absorption of flavanols).
To reap the benefits of dark chocolate, a number of experts advise, eat 1.5 ounces daily. That’s about half of a typical bar.
Still, even half of a fair-trade, ethically sourced, organic dark-chocolate bar with 70 percent cocoa contains 12 to 18 grams — about 3 to 4 teaspoons — of added sugar. That’s equivalent to a glazed Dunkin’ Donuts doughnut or a Hostess Chocolate CupCake (both of which also include processed flours that your body converts to sugars).
Your best option is to choose chocolate bars with 85 percent or higher cocoa; sugar content typically drops to 5 grams or less per serving. You can also snack on unprocessed cacao nibs, grind cacao with your coffee beans, or add 100 percent unsweetened, nonalkalized cocoa powder to a smoothie.
And you can reframe your love of dark chocolate as an occasional treat with potential health benefits. As Marion Nestle says, “Chocolate is candy, best consumed in moderation.”
This originally appeared as “Unwrapping Dark Chocolate: The Marketing Behind a Superfood” in the July/August 2018 print issue of Experience Life.
Dark-Chocolate Cheat Sheet
In search of the healthiest and best-tasting dark chocolate — because we still want to indulge in a bite or two on occasion — we culled these buying tips from our expert sources.
- Aim for a high cocoa percentage — ideally, more than 85 percent. The higher the cocoa, the more likely the chocolate will contain healthy flavanols. The rest of any chocolate is filler, primarily sugar, dairy, and fat.
- Seek out chocolate made from the best cacao beans, which come from countries closest to the equator, including the Ivory Coast and Ghana in Africa, and Ecuador and Peru in South America.
- Look for chocolate listing cocoa, cocoa mass, or chocolate liquor first. The fewer the overall ingredients, the less processed the chocolate is likely to be, and the healthier it is for you.
- Support fair-trade chocolate, which certifies that fair prices were paid to the cacao producers in developing countries.
- Opt for organic and non-GMO chocolate produced without chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.
- Skip Dutch-processed cocoa, which uses alkalization to remove bitter flavors; it also damages antioxidants.
- Steer clear of any chocolate with sugar as the first ingredient.
- Watch out for chocolate containing cheap vegetable oils instead of cocoa butter.
- Choose chocolate that promises it’s made from humanely harvested cacao. Chocolate has a long, sad history of slave and child labor.
Cacao: The raw, unprocessed fruit of the cacao tree.
Cocoa: Processed cacao, which has often been fermented, alkalized (a.k.a. Dutch-processed), and roasted at a high temperature.
Chocolate: Cocoa blended with sugar, cocoa butter and other fats, and other assorted ingredients, such as salt and emulsifiers.
Dark Chocolate: Typically, chocolate with a cocoa content of 50 percent or more — although there are no regulations governing minimum cocoa quantities.
Milk Chocolate: Chocolate with milk added to offset the bitter flavor of cocoa and please consumers’ palates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture requires a minimum of 10 percent cocoa content to label it “milk chocolate.”
White Chocolate: “Chocolate” made of cocoa butter but no cocoa.|
Researching Chocolate: An Interview With Catherine Kwik-Uribe, PhD
By Michael Dregni
Since 1999, candy maker Mars, Inc., has funded more than 140 studies examining the potential health benefits of cocoa. The studies have come from researchers at the Mars Science Advisory Council and Mars Symbioscience, as well as Mars-endowed or -funded university professors around the globe.
Catherine Kwik-Uribe, PhD, is the global director of R&D–Scientific and Regulatory Affairs at Mars Symbioscience. She details Mars’s research into cocoa’s health benefits.
Experience Life | Are there studies that have found recommendations for how many milligrams of flavanols are beneficial? What are these recommendations?
Catherine Kwik-Uribe | Mars has been studying cocoa flavanols for over 20 years. One outcome of this research is the emergence of evidence that the intake of cocoa flavanols can support the health and function of the vascular system. As of today, there is no authoritative “recommendation” on the intake of flavanols, but this may come in the future as the research on the health benefits of cocoa flavanols (and flavanols more broadly) continues to emerge. Specific to the research conducted by Mars, Inc., the intake of 200–900 mg of cocoa flavanols has been studied and shown to improve blood vessel function, which is important to the health and function of the cardiovascular system as a whole. These benefits are evident immediately, and sustained vascular benefits appear with the regular intake of cocoa flavanols.
It’s important for Experience Life readers to understand that many of the strongest scientific studies on cocoa flavanols have been conducted with cocoa beverages that had a specific, measured amount of cocoa flavanols in them. Not chocolate. At Mars we’ve proudly collaborated with internationally recognized researchers and research institutions on these studies because we have a proprietary process called Cocoapro that protects and preserves cocoa flavanols. While some of our early flavanol research was done with chocolate and we do other health-related research around chocolate, we strongly believe it is a treat and not a health food. Over the past decade, we have done research exclusively focused on the use of products that retain high levels of flavanols, but are more nutritionally responsible and thus suitable for daily consumption.
EL | As a consumer, is there any easy way for me to know and compare how much of the health-giving flavanols are in particular bars of chocolate?
CKU | The short answer is no. The vexing challenge to making clear recommendations, as well as the clear labeling of products in the market is the lack of a standardized method for the analysis of cocoa flavanols. In contrast to nutrients which have standardized methods of analysis that enable consistent product labeling (e.g., protein, sodium, calcium, vitamin C), this does not currently exist for cocoa flavanols or any of the flavanols found in other foods. Mars has advanced, validated, and published a method for the analysis of cocoa flavanols, and while this method is used in the labeling of products made by Mars, this method is not consistently used by all others in the labeling of products, or even in the conducting of research. The outcome is that consumers can’t readily compare labels. We are working to overcome this challenge, but as of today, there is no consistent, reliable product labeling that allows consumers to know the level of flavanols in a product by simply reading the label.
EL | Does a high cacao percentage in a chocolate bar correspond to high flavanol levels, or does it correspond only roughly and the actual level is determined by processing of the cocoa — alkalization, etc.?
CKU | Percent cacao (percent cocoa solids) is standardized on a food label, and a higher cacao content should yield a higher level of cocoa flavanols, but unfortunately, it’s not a reliable indicator of flavanol content. That’s because cocoa flavanols are plant-based nutrients (also called phytonutrients or, alternatively, bioactives) that can be easily damaged by heat and humidity. Because fermentation and roasting are key steps in traditional cocoa processing, and alkalization (“dutching”) is commonly done to cocoa to improve color and flavor, the cocoa flavanols naturally occurring in cocoa are often destroyed in the process of making most cocoa products (e.g., chocolate). Two bars labeled with the same percent cocoa solids are likely to have very different levels of flavanols, as the level of flavanols is dependent upon the selection and processing of the cocoa beans. If the word “dutched” or “processed with alkali (or ammonium/potassium/sodium bicarbonate)” is listed on a label, that’s an indicator that the cocoa has been treated in such a way that the flavanols have been largely destroyed.
ConsumerLab has a report on dark chocolate and cocoa flavanol levels that may interest you. This isn’t our data so we can’t comment on the details, but the findings are interesting and speak to your question on cacao content.
Gentle handling and processing of the cocoa bean, from harvest to final delivery of the product, is critical to ensure preservation of cocoa flavanols. We (Mars, Incorporated) developed and perfected the proprietary Cocoapro process, which preserves more of the cocoa flavanols naturally present in fresh cocoa beans. The Cocoapro process is Mars’s promise to our consumers of a guaranteed level of cocoa flavanols. Our CocoaVia brand supplements and the chocolate used on goodnessKNOWS snack squares use this process. In fact, CocoaVia is ConsumerLab’s Top Pick among cocoa-extract supplements. Available in capsules and flavored stick packs (10–30 calories per pack), CocoaVia delivers 375 mg of cocoa flavanol — the highest level of cocoa flavanols in a dietary supplement in the market today, without the calories, fat, and added sugar that go along with chocolate.
EL| In this 2015 Mars posting, you state: “It’s important to remember that despite the chocolate-y rumors, chocolate is a wonderful, but occasional treat that can be part of a balanced, healthy diet. Cocoa flavanols are found in chocolate, but the amount of chocolate that has to be consumed to achieve the level of intake shown to exert benefits will generally be far above a ‘healthy’ amount of chocolate.” May I quote you on that?
CKU | I would like to be more specific in saying that chocolate is not a health food to add to your diet to increase your flavanol intake. Chocolate is an occasional treat that happens to contain flavanols from cocoa. As the science on cocoa flavanols evolves, we’ve learned that the benefits of cocoa flavanols are sustained with regular daily use, and chocolate, while tasty, is not the right vehicle for delivering those benefits. At Mars, we’ve worked to create nutritiously responsible products such as CocoaVia, a cocoa-extract-based dietary supplement, to enable consumers to have convenient formats with high levels of flavanols that can easily fit into a healthy daily diet.|
Healthy Chocolate: Superfood or Super Marketing?: An Interview With Andy Bellatti, MS, RD
By Michael Dregni
Sales of candy in the United States have been falling in the past several years, but chocolate sales are booming — up 25 percent in the last decade. This seems surprising with the growing worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease on everyone’s mind. How do chocolate makers boost sales in a climate of health anxiety?
By borrowing marketing strategies from other beleaguered sectors, including the tobacco industry, soda makers, and fast-food franchises, says registered dietitian Andy Bellatti, MS, RD, strategic director of the food-industry watchdog group Dietitians for Professional Integrity.
Bellatti explains his views on the candy makers’ marketing of chocolate as a healthy superfood.
Experience Life | Mars, Hershey, Nestlé, Barry Callebaut, and other candy makers have helmed or funded more than 100 studies on chocolate’s health benefits. This raises questions about the bias of the study findings — and of the now-widespread belief by consumers that chocolate is indeed healthy for us. Do you believe there is a basis for the candy makers’ claims of chocolate health benefits, or is this more of a marketing campaign?
Andy Bellatti | It’s by and large more of a marketing campaign. Pure cocoa offers nutrients and has health benefits, but pure cocoa is not the same as a candy bar. It would be like touting the health benefits of apples when you’re selling apple pie. It’s absolutely clouding the facts for the purpose of sales. The average candy bar has about 20 to 30 percent cocoa; the rest is sugar and added fats. An apple is 100 percent apple, whereas an apple pie also adds flour, sugar, fats, etc. If a tablespoon of sugar is added to cocoa, then the health benefits of cocoa are mitigated — I wouldn’t say completely eliminated.
EL | Is this marketing confusing to consumers who are striving to identify truly healthy foods?
AB | Yes. As much as there are some nutritional benefits to pure cocoa — fiber, iron, magnesium, etc. — it is also true that the absence of cocoa in a diet will not make it any less healthy. The important thing, as usual, is to go straight to the whole food. Munch on some cacao nibs or add 100 percent unsweetened, non-alkalized cocoa powder to a smoothie.
EL | Does the idea that chocolate is good for us perhaps make us overlook the human costs of farming chocolate — child labor, unfair trade practices, etc.?
AB | Definitely. I always like to talk about food as multilayered. Yes, there is the health aspect, but there are also the ecological, labor, and sustainability aspects. This is why I always recommend looking for brands that at least have certifications that point to some sort of effort toward humanitarian and ecological factors — fair trade, organic, direct trade, slavery-free, etc.
EL | Do you see other issues that this research raises — or is causing us consumers to overlook?
AB | I don’t like the idea of cocoa/chocolate as a “superfood.” The whole notion of “superfoods” is silly. All whole, plant-based foods (including cocoa) confer health benefits. Let’s stop turning everything into a ranking. Besides, the key to health is also diversity. You want a variety of whole, plant-based foods in your diet. No one “superfood” can provide everything you need.